Old Question – 2071 (Urban Governance and Development Management)

Tribhuvan University 2071 Master Level MPA/II Year / Mgmt.                                                                                          FM 80 LGD 642 – Urban Governance & Development Management                                               Time: 4 hr Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. The questions are of equal value. Group ‘A’                                             [2×20=40] (Long Answer Questions) Attempt any TWO questions Trace briefly the emergence and development of urban centers in Nepal What are urban politicies? How the are significant in the development of systematic urban areas? Discuss. Discuss the reasons of haphazard growth of urban areas in Nepal.   Group –’B’                                           [4×10=40] (Short Answer Questions) Distinguish between urban finance and municipal finance. Give reasons why urban poverty is increasing in Nepal. Identify major urban institutions and their roles in Nepal. What is partnership? How is it working in urban governance in Nepal? State briefly the urban governance strategy adopted in 13th three year… View All ….“Old Question – 2071 (Urban Governance and Development Management)”

Field Work of Urban Governance and Dev. Mgmt.

Nongovernmental Organizations in Nepal: Roles and Policy Issues 1. Historical Background Nongovernmental organization (NGOs) are proliferating in the world today, and their role in development process, especially in the developing nations, has gained wide recognition. They have become supplementary agencies often more successful than government authorities in reducing the problems of disadvantaged places and people (Ojha, 1996). The emergence of formal nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) is a relatively recent phenomenon in Nepal. However, the concept of community-based organization (CBO) has a long historical tradition. At present, the scope of the NGO community has broadened in both number and character. People-based or community-based systems are not new to Nepal. Social welfare and non-profit entities in Nepal can be traced back to the Lichhavi period. But many of the people-based organizations gradually  eroded  after  the  unification  of  Nepal and  the subsequent Shah-Rana rule. Modern volunteerism in Nepal in the form of providing temporary relief through social welfare was introduced by Tulsi Mehar. In the early 1950s, Tulsi Mehar set up the Gandhi Charkha… View All ….“Field Work of Urban Governance and Dev. Mgmt.”